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Emulação de jogos é ILEGAL.

Discussão em 'Jogos - Discussão Geral' iniciada por Ghost021, 28 de Janeiro de 2005. (Respostas: 6; Visualizações: 1603)

  1. Ghost021

    Ghost021 Power Member

    Aqui está um ponto de vista bastante interessante sobre emulação de jogos e copias/downloads.

    O LINK!

    All Emulation Is Illegal
    Wednesday, January 26 2005 @ 01:00 PM CST
    Contributed by: jvm

    The title overstates it a bit, but not by much. This is an angle on copyright and emulation that I've been mulling for a while but have never formally written down. The upshot is that all emulation of copyrighted videogames might be illegal even if you own the original game and emulator writers (and websites that distribute them) might be contributory infringers. It all has to do with Title 17, Chapter 1, § 117...

    I can prove that I own an original copy of Skate or Die! for the Commodore 64. Let's take that as a given. Now, here's the basic question:

    Can I play the Commodore 64 version of Skate or Die! on a Commodore 64 emulator without breaking the law?

    To do this, I first must have a copy that an emulator will play, and usually that means I need a D64 file (an electronic replica of the contents of a 5.25" floppy disk formatted for a Commodore 1541/1571 disk drive) with the game stored on it. According to Title 17, Chapter 1, § 117, entitled "Limitations on exclusive rights: Computer programs" we see:

    (a) Making of Additional Copy or Adaptation by Owner of Copy.— Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, it is not an infringement for the owner of a copy of a computer program to make or authorize the making of another copy or adaptation of that computer program provided:

    (1) that such a new copy or adaptation is created as an essential step in the utilization of the computer program in conjunction with a machine and that it is used in no other manner, or
    (2) that such new copy or adaptation is for archival purposes only and that all archival copies are destroyed in the event that continued possession of the computer program should cease to be rightful.

    Well, that seems rather straightforward and restrictive. That D64 file is for archival purposes only. Unless the definition is more flexible than it appears, that means the owner of an original may make a a copy and that copy cannot be used unless the original is destroyed or damaged. (Perhaps even that is reading too much into it?) So as long as you have an original, that copy should be sitting somewhere safe until needed to replace the original, should that event ever arise.

    Now, if this is how we interpret the law, then practically every use of a videogame system emulator is illegal. Even a user who dumps the contents of a videogame cartridge for an Atari 2600 game he owns to a ROM file cannot use that ROM file with an emulator unless the original's loss requires resorting to the archival copy. If true, then even my attempt to stay legal by buying games and only then using an emulator to play them is way out of bounds.

    For what it's worth, I did once ask Frank Leibly of StarROMs if they had interpreted the law similarly when having to work through license negotiations to redistribute ROMs. In particular, I asked if my interpretation of the archival copy clause were correct. Further doesn't that mean that the only legal way for the owner of an Atari Asteroids stand-up machine to play the game in an emulator is to obtain a license for the ROM for that purpose (which, incidentally, StarROMs does). Frank responded that, yes, my interpretation was correct (in this case, the same that StarROMs was working from) and that, yes, an Asteroids owner would have to obtain a copy of Asteroids specifically for use with an emulator, unless they were using an archival copy after the original failed.

    Let's just say it outright: StarROMs, a company that wants to sell ROMs, has an interest in having the law interpreted this way. Regardless, I don't think that they're wrong, and I think that their opinion is one that copyright holders are more likely to take, whether the public likes it or not.

    So what's the upshot for emulator writers? Well, I would worry about contributory copyright infringement, the type of legal challenge that all the Peer-to-Peer applications have had to deal with. Not that this should happen to them, or that it would be a good thing, but I think it could, especially if a big copyright holder like Nintendo were to take the stance I've outlined above. And isn't Nintendo hoping to make money from their rereleases of NES games for the GameBoy Advance? Seems obvious that emulators for other systems are competing directly with Nintendo's commercial interests in that case.

    And I think that Nintendo does hold the view stated above:

    The backup/archival copy exception is a very narrow limitation relating to a copy being made by the rightful owner of an authentic game to ensure he or she has one in the event of damage or destruction of the authentic. Therefore, whether you have an authentic game or not, or whether you have possession of a Nintendo ROM for a limited amount of time, i.e. 24 hours, it is illegal to download and play a Nintendo ROM from the Internet.

    That puts it pretty plainly, and I have to confess that I agree with their interpretation.

    I should also point out that there are potentially more problems than just the ones I've raised. Does an emulator make use of a copyrighted BIOS or kernal? If so, can anyone legally use it without specific permission from the copyright holder to use a copy of the BIOS in that manner? Does the archival copy have to be exact? If so, then Commodore 64 games which use very tricky hacks with the hard drive might be very difficult to archive, and in fact cracked versions of a game may be classified unauthorized derivative works and therefore ineligible to be considered archival copies. Does the archival copy have to be used in the exact same way as the original? If so, then perhaps the only thing you can do with an archival copy, even after the original is destroyed, is to use it with the original hardware, not an emulator. Incidentally, this doesn't even cover the issue of software licensing, which adds an entirely new layer of crap on top of the whole copyright mess. I have a GameCube game whose manual specifically prohibits copying of the game, and specifically says that this does not infringe the right to make an archival copy. How does that work? And what if the game is sold used without the manual?

    Which is to say, even when you try to stay legal, you're probably still breaking the law. It's not a situation that makes me very happy, honestly, and I wish that the law were written differently. Perhaps, in the future, the law can be changed to make casual copying by an individual for convenience or emulation without redistribution to third parties completely legal. But until then, I'll stick to my original statement: All use of emulation is illegal.
  2. Triston

    Triston Aku Soku Zan SM

    Curti o ponto de vista do rapaz mas tb curti os pontos de vista do ppl q comentou...

    Uma coisa e' certa a lei e' a lei... e segundo as leis de copyright nos nao podemos sequer fazer copias de segurança para protegermos tudo o q compramos seja software, musica ou media... ou seja se eu quero fazer uma compilação com as melhores musicas de constituir familia de 3 ou 4 cd's q eu tenho aqui em casa para levar para uma festa ou para ouvir no carro estou automaticamente a quebrar a lei. Se tenho uma cassete VHS com um filme original q quero passar para DVD pq as cassetes nao duram para sempre entao estou a quebrar a lei...

    A interpretação literal dessa lei e' um bocado absurda para qqer pessoa, pq se eu tenho uma coisa de q gosto e pela qual paguei bom dinheiro deveria ter o direito de a proteger de maneira poder usufruir dela o maior tempo possivel ou mesmo eternamente, e não apenas enquanto o volume onde esta contido esse conteudo dura (digo eu)

    Posso dar-te um exemplo gritante de um caso em q a emulação deveria ser considerada legal. O caso do spectrum... estamos a falar de cassetes de audio perfeitamente normais q se desgastam a cada vez q passam pelo gravador, ou seja, têm uma vida extremamente limitada (5 anos - 10 no maximo antes de se detriorarem) tendo em conta q sao coisas q ja nao se fazem ha 15 anos neste momento se nao se tivesse recorrido 'a emulação ja se teriam perdido a maioria de todos os programas e jogos q alguma vez se fizeram para o spectrum...

    O mesmo se passaria com muitos outros sistemas q nasceram, tiveram o seu tempo e morreram e q a emulação traz de novo 'a vida.

    Sinceramente o caso da emulação esta de certa maneira ligado ao abbandonware (q uns dizem ser legal e outros ilegal) o q e' certo e' q em grande parte do mundo da emulação os jogos ja sairam do mercado ha anos. Ja ng ganha dinheiro com eles a nao ser quem os possui e os vende como artigos de colecionador. Mtas das software houses q produziram os jogos ja nao existem nem as distribuidoras q as suportavam.

    Quem e' q tem alguma coisa a perder no caso de usares um emulador de spectrum com um jogo chamado sex crime por exemplo? Qual e' a software house q se vai sentir lesada se o fizeres? Quem foi q perdeu dinheiro neste caso? A resposta e' ng... o jogo esta morto comercialmente falando...
  3. redalert

    redalert Folding Member

    ai n?! mostra la onde é k isto esta explicitamente declarado. :)

  4. I_Eat_All

    I_Eat_All Plasma Beam!

    bem... isso é tudo muito giro, mas as leis são para ser quebradas na base do bom senso

    a lei deve estar sempre do lado do consumidor e não do lado das grandes empresas, logo é absurdo um gajo ser processado por ter copiado o seu joginho do spectrum antes k a cassete fosse pós anjos, aliás até é absurdo ser processado por jogos de 1998 k já não se fazem, kual é o mal de antes de jogar doom 3 ir buscar o 1 e o 2? é kuase o mm k pegar no sr dos aneis "o regresso do rei" sem ver os outros, exepto k a historia no doom praticamente não existe

    a emulação ainda faz outras coisas como melhorar a experiençia kuando bastante optimizada, desde efeitos de particulas em jogos playstation a aumentar a resolução de jogos SNES sem perder kualidade (com filtros de photoshop e emuladores malucos todos em japunês) eu até acho k os emuladores ajudam a vender as consolas...
    claro k se a PS3 fosse emulável desde o dia um... era perigoso para os ladrões da sony :joker:
  5. JPgod

    JPgod Moderador
    Staff Member

    Ou seja, comprei as 3 Edições Especias do Senhor Dos Anéis, fiz cópias de segurança para não estragar os DVD's originais e poder verse o filme na sala e no meu PC ao mesmo tempo e estou ilegal?!?! err... Até então vi que que era 101% legítimo fazer isso, desde que tenhamos os originais...

    Alem disso, este texto que passaste não tem qq valor em PT, o que se aplica legamente é a LEI oficial portuguesa...
  6. redalert

    redalert Folding Member

    ja k ha tanta duvida nesta materia k tal mandar um email para a deco, n? :rolleyes:

  7. SideWalker

    SideWalker Colaborador
    Staff Member

    Qaundo compram um CD DVD, como estão a adquirir os direitos sobre o conteudo, podem fazer quantas cópias de segurança quiserem, inclusivé em formatos diferentes do original. Não podem é emprestar/dar/vender essas cópias aos amigos...

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